Proteins other than a cute phase reactants cause elevation of the ESR. High plasma concentrations of immunog lobulins,caused by myeloma or paraproteinaemias,are examples of this.
â€¢The ESR is also affected by the size and Â shape of the red blood cells. Thus anaemia, old age and pregnancy can
lead to an elevationin ESR.
â€¢ Poly my algia rheumatica is characterized by an ESR >100 mm/hand pain and stiffness of the shoulder and pelvic Â girdles. It is rare before the age of 50 and is associated with giant cell arteritis.
This mnemonic provides a simplified list of the more common causes of immunodeficiency, which can be categorize in to primary (common variable) and secondary (the rest).