ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Intensive care

Enteral nutrition (EN) via tube feeding is, today, the preferred way of feeding the critically ill patient and an important means of counteracting for the
catabolic state induced by severe diseases. These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of EN in patients who have a complicated course during their ICU stay, focusing particularly on those who develop a severe inflammatory response, i.e. patients who have failure of at least one organ during their ICU stay. These guidelines were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and are based on all relevant publica-tions since 1985. They were discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN should be given to all ICU patients who are not expected to be taking a full oral diet within three days. It should have begun during the first 24 h using a standard high-protein formula. During the acute and initial phases of critical illness an exogenous energy supply in excess of 20–25 kcal/kg BW/day should be avoided, whereas, during recovery, the aim should be to provide values of 25–30 total kcal/ kg BW/day. Supplementary parenteral nutrition remains a reserve tool and should be given only to those patients who do not reach their target nutrient intake on EN
alone. There is no general indication for immune-modulating formulae in patients with severe illness or sepsis and an APACHE II Score 415. Glutamine should be supplemented in patients suffering from burns or trauma.

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Essentials of Food Science, Third Edition

Knowledge of food science is applicable to all persons, in diverse college majors. This text is designed with a user-friendly approach to Food Science for the non-major.

This text reviews an Introduction to Food Components – quality and water. Next it addresses carbohydrates – including starches, pectins and gums, breads and pasta, vegetables and fruits. Then proteins – meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, milk and milk products are presented. Following proteins are fats and emulsions. Then sugars and sweeteners, and baked products, the latter of which builds upon basic food component knowledge.

Various aspects of Food Production are examined, including food safety, preservation and processing, food additives and packaging. Government regulation and labeling complete the chapter information.

New in this edition are “Culinary Alerts!” scattered throughout chapters. Their inclusion allow the reader to more easily apply text information to cooking applications. Also new are the Appendices, which cover the following:

  • Biotechnology. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s)
  • Functional foods
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Phytochemicals
  • Medical foods
  • USDA Food Pyramid
  • Food Label Heath Claims
  • Research Chefs Association – certification as a culinary scientist and more

Using a multidisciplinary approach, Essentials of Food Science, Third Edition combines food chemistry, food technology, and food preparation applications into one single source of information.

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